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You are here: Home / Aquatic Species / Species Profiles / Spiny Water Flea
Aquatic Species
  
Species Profiles

Spiny Water Flea

Spiny water flea - FWS

Scientific name: Bythotrephes longimanus (Leydig, 1860)

Synonym: Bythotrephes cederstroemi

Common name: Spiny water flea

Click image to enlarge

Native To: Northern Europe (Indiana Department of Natural Resources 2005)

Date of U.S. Introduction: First discovered in Lake Huron in 1984; established in all of the Great Lakes by 1987 (Cullis 1988)

Means of Introduction: Accidentally introduced through ballast water (Berg et al. 2002)

Impacts: Has caused a decline in the population of zooplankton as a result of predation (Vanderploeg et al. 2002); may also compete with some native species, such as perch and small crustaceans (Branstrator and Lehman 1996)

Current U.S. Distribution:

  • Great Lakes Region
    NAS Database map
    DOI. United States Geological Survey.
  • Ontario Spiny Water Flea Distribution (maps); also contains Great Lakes Region
    Invading Species Awareness Program. Ontario Canada.

Images:

Selected Internet Resources:

Federal Government

Bythotrephes longimanus
Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Taxonomy

Harmful Aquatic Hitchhikers: Crustaceans: Spiny Water Flea and Fishhook Water Flea
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force. Stop Aquatic Hitchhikers.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

Bythotrephes longimanus Article Citation Search - AGRICOLA Database
USDA. National Agricultural Library.
Research; Special Note: NAL Catalog Search (resources)

Spiny Water Flea, Bythotrephes cederstroemi
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Introduction History; Life Cycle

Bythotrephes longimanus- Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program
DOD. USACE. Engineer Research and Development Center. Environmental Laboratory.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Spiny Water Flea (Bythotrephes longimanus) (PDF | 8.43 MB)
DOI. NPS. Isle Royale National Park.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Life Cycle; Dispersion

Bythotrephes longimanus - Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database
DOI. USGS. Southeast Ecological Science Center.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Special Note: Distribution maps and collection information (State and County)

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State Government

Aquatic Invasive Species: Spiny and Fishhook Water Fleas (PDF | 152 KB)
Indiana Department of Natural Resources.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Spiny Water Flea Alert
Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Distribution; Dispersion

Spiny water flea (Bythotrephes longimanus)
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Dispersion

Aquatic Nuisance Species: Bythotrephes cederstroemi (Spiny waterflea)
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.
Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle

Alien Profile: Spiny Water Flea
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

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University/Academic

Aquatic Invaders: Spiny Water Flea - Aquatic Invader Toolkit (PDF | 685 KB)
Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant.
Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Zooplankton of the Great Lakes: Bythotrephes cederstroemi
Central Michigan University.
Taxonomy; Photographs; Life Cycle; Distribution

Life History and Effects on the Great Lakes of the Spiny Tailed Bythotrephes
University of Minnesota. Minnesota Sea Grant.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Illustrations; Impacts; Life Cycle

Spiny and Fishhook Waterflea
University of Minnesota. Minnesota Sea Grant.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Controls

The Spiny Water Flea, Bythotrephes longimanus (PDF | 956 KB)
Ohio State University. Ohio Sea Grant College Program.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts

Spiny and Fishhook Water Flea (PDF | 237 KB)
Pennsylvania Sea Grant.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Impacts; Life Cycle; Distribution; Controls

Waterfleas - Aquatic Invasive Species of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania Sea Grant and Penn State Erie - The Behrend College.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Invader of the Month: Spiny Water Flea (Jun 2002)
University of Tennessee. Institute for Biological Invasions.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

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International

Spiny Water Flea
Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters (Canada). Invading Species Awareness Program.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Distribution; Controls

Bythotrephes longimanus (crustacean) - ISSG Global Invasive Species Database
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

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Organizations

Spiny Water Flea - Lake George Fact Sheet No. 25 (Feb 2014; PDF | 136 KB)
Fund for Lake George (New York).
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

Spiny Water Flea in the Great Lakes Region
Great Lakes Information Network.
Photographs; Introduction History

Citations

Berg, D.J., D.W. Garton, H.J. MacIsaac, V.E. Panov, and I.V. Telesh. 2002. Changes in genetic structure of North American Bythotrephes populations following invasion from Lake Ladoga, Russia (PDF | 95 KB). Freshwater Biology 47: 275-282.

Branstrator, D.K. 1995. Ecological interactions between Bythotrephes cederstroemi and Leptodora kindtii and the implications for species replacement in Lake Michigan. J. Great Lakes Res. 21: 670-679.

Cullis, K.I., and G.E. Johnson. 1988. First evidence of the cladoceran Bythotrephes cederstroemi Schoedler in Lake Superior. J. Great Lakes Res. 14: 524-525.

Indiana Department of Natural Resources. 2005. Aquatic Invasive Species: Spiny and Fishhook Water Fleas (PDF | 152 KB).

Vanderploeg, H.A., T.F. Nalepa, D.J. Jude, E.L. Mills, K.T. Holeck, J.R. Liebig, I.A. Grigorovich, and H. Ojaveer. 2002. Dispersal and emerging ecological impacts of Ponto-Caspian species in the Laurentian Great Lakes (PDF | 448 KB). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59: 1209-1228.

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Last Modified: Jul 01, 2014
 
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