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You are here: Home / Aquatic Species / Species Profiles / Species not Established in the U.S.
Aquatic Species
Species Profiles

Species not Established in the U.S.

The following species of concern provides examples of why we must increase our efforts in early detection and rapid response and prevention of new introductions. See Manager's Tool Kit - Early Detection and Rapid Response: Species not Established in the U.S. for general resources and other species information.

This information is provided as an educational tool and is not inclusive of all invasive aquatic species not yet established in the U.S.

Nile perch - USGS, NAS Database

Scientific name: Lates niloticus (ITIS)                     

Common name: Nile Perch

Native To: Africa (NAS Database)

Date of U.S. Introduction: August 1975 (Rutledge and Lyons 1976)

Means of Introduction: Intentionally introduced to Texas for sport fishing (Rutledge and Lyons 1976)

Impacts: Was introduced to Lake Victoria (Africa) in 1954, where it destroyed 200 native species of fish through predation and competition for food (Kaufman 1992); no negative impact in Texas so far as the species is still controlled (NAS Database)


Invasive Species Compendium - Lates niloticus
CAB International.

Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database: Fact Sheet - Nile Perch
DOI. USGS. Southeast Ecological Science Center.
Provides distribution maps and collection information (State and County).

Global Invasive Species Database - Lates niloticus (fish)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

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Golden mussel - Prof. Marcela Becker

Scientific name: Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (CABI)

Common name: Golden mussel

Native To: China and South Eastern Asian rivers and creeks

Date of U.S. Introduction: n/a

Means of Introduction: Has invaded South America through ballast water, and could be introduced to North America through ballast water (Global Invasive Species Database 2005)

Impact: Threatens native biodiversity, suffocate and starve out native bivalves and produce macrofouling in water systems (Global Invasive Species Database 2005)


Invasive Species Compendium - Limnoperna fortunei
CAB International.

Global Invasive Species Database - Limnoperna fortunei (mollusc)
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.

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Killer shrimp - S. Giersen

Scientific name: Dikerogammarus villosus (Sowinsky, 1894) (CABI)

Common name: Killer shrimp

Native To: Eastern Europe (Crosier et al. 2006)

Date of U.S. Introduction: n/a

Means of Introduction: In Europe, most likely through ballast water and could enter the U.S. in the same way (Crosier et al. 2006)

Impact: In Europe killer shrimp populations have caused significant ecological disruption, including reduced biodiversity and local species extinction (Crosier et al. 2006)


Invasive Species Compendium - Dikerogammarus villosus
CAB International.

Killer Shrimp
Great Britain Non-Native Species Secretariat.

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Oxygen weed - Invasive.org

Scientific name: Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss (ITIS)

Common name: Oxygen weed, Lagarosiphon

Native To: Southern Africa (McGregor and Gourlay 2002)

Date of U.S. Introduction: n/a

Means of Introduction: Spread throughout the world as an aquarium plant (National Heritage Trust 2003)

Impact: Has invaded New Zealand and Europe. It can inhabit freshwater lakes, dams and slow moving streams. Forms dense mats that block sunlight, thereby killing native aquatic plant and animal species, which could rival the harmful effects of hydrilla. (Csurhes and Edwards 1998)


Invasive Species Compendium - Lagarosiphon major
CAB International.

Plant Profile: Lagarosiphon major
University of Florida. IFAS. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.

Weeds in Australia - Lagarosiphon (Lagarosiphon major)
Australian Government. Department of the Environment.

Global Invasive Species Database - Lagarosiphon major (aquatic plant)
IUCN. Species Survival Commission. Invasive Species Specialist Group.


CABI. Invasive Species Compendium. Dikerogammarus villosus. CAB International. [Accessed Mar 5, 2015].

CABI. Invasive Species Compendium. Limnoperna fortunei. CAB International. [Accessed Mar 5, 2015].

Crosier, D.M. D.P. Molloy, A. bij de Vaate, and S. Devin. 2006. Killer Shrimp - Dikerogammarus villosus (PDF | 209 KB). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program.

Csurhes, S. and R. Edwards. 1998. Potential Environmental Weeds in Australia: Candidate Species for Preventative Control (PDF | 1.3 MB). Environment Australia.

Global Invasive Species Database. 2005. Limnoperna fortunei (mollusc). Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Lagarosiphon major. [Accessed Mar 5, 2015].

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Lates niloticus. [Accessed Mar 3, 2015].

Kaufman, L. 1992. Catastrophic change in species-rich freshwater ecosystems: the lessons of Lake Victoria.  Bioscience 42:846-858.

McGregor, P.G. and H. Gourlay. 2002. Assessing the Prospects for Biological Control of Lagarosiphon (Lagarosiphon major (Hydrocharitaceae)) (PDF | 109 KB). Wellington, N.Z.: Department of Conservation. DOC Science Internal Series 57.

National Heritage Trust. 2003. Lagarosiphon (Lagarosiphon major) Weed Management Guide. Department of the Environment and Heritage and the CRC for Australian Weed Management.

Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Fact Sheet - Nile Perch. USGS, Gainesville, FL. [Accessed Sep 16, 2014].

Rutledge, W.P. and B.W. Lyons. 1976. Texas peacock bass and Nile perch: status report (PDF | 396 KB). In: Proceedings of the Thirtieth Annual Conference Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (pp.18-23). Jackson, Miss.: Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies.

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Last Modified: Apr 09, 2016
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