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You are here: Home / Aquatic Species / Species Profiles / Common Reed
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Species Profiles

Common Reed

Common ReedScientific name: Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.

Common name: Common reed

Click image to enlarge

Spotlights:

  • Density of Invasive Reed, Phragmites Australis, Mapped in Great Lakes (Dec 17, 2012)
    Science Daily; Michigan Technological University.
    Phragmites australis, an invasive species of plant called common reed, grows rapidly into dense stands of tall plants that pose an extreme threat to Great Lakes coastal wetlands. Early treatment is the key to controlling Phragmites. Scientists have mapped the U.S. coastline of all five Great Lakes using satellite technologies. The Phragmites map is the first of its kind. It is "a highly accurate data set that will allow national, regional and local managers to visualize the extent of Phragmites invasion in the Great Lakes and strategically plan efforts to manage existing populations and minimize new colonization."

  • Distinguishing Native and Exotic Forms of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in the United States (2010; PDF | 2.4 MB)
    Produced by: Jil Swearingen, J. and Kristin Saltonstall. 2010. Plant Conservation Alliance, Weeds Gone Wild.


Native To: Native to the U.S., but the more invasive strains originated in Europe (Tulbure et al. 2007)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Invasive European strains probably introduced during the 1800s (Saltonstall 2002)

Means of Introduction: Possibly through ships' ballast (Saltonstall 2002)

Impact: Crowds out native species (Tewksbury et al. 2002)

Current U.S. Distribution:

Images:

Video:

  • Common Reed (or select Play button below)
    University of Florida. (YouTube).

Selected Internet Resources:

Federal Government

Phragmites australis
Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Taxonomy

Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (Common Reed) - Aquatic Plant Information System (APIS)
DOD. USACE. Engineer Research and Development Center. Environmental Laboratory.
Identification/Description; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Common Reed - Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas (2002)
DOI. National Park Service and Fish and Wildlife Service.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Controls

Fragmented Phragmites: Overview and Identification of Introduced Exotic and Native Forms of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) (Jun 14, 2006; PDF | 1.73 MB)
DOI. National Park Service.
Jil Swearingen (NPS) developed the following presentation on distinguishing the native and non-native subspecies of Phragmites in the eastern U.S. (but not the Gulf Coast), drawing on information primarily from Dr. Kristin Saltonstall, now at the University of Maryland.

Phragmites australis Article Citation Search - AGRICOLA Database
USDA. National Agricultural Library.
Research; Special Note: NAL Catalog Search (resources)

Phragmites australis - Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
USDA. ARS. National Genetic Resources Program.
Taxonomy; Legal Aspects

Common Reed - Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States (Aug 2002)
BugwoodWiki.
Published by: USDA. Forest Service. Publication FHTET-2002-04.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Distribution; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Controls

Phragmites australis - Fire Effects Information System (FEIS)
USDA. FS. Rocky Mountain Research Station. Fire Sciences Laboratory.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls; Special Note: References

PLANTS Database - Common Reed
USDA. NRCS. National Plant Data Center.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Distribution; Legal Aspects

Common Reed
DOI. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Habitat

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State Government

Common Reed - Invasive Plant Species Fact Sheet (PDF | 115 KB)
Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Invasive Plant Species Assessment Working Group.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Common Reed: An Invasive Wetland Plant (PDF | 539 KB)
Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation. Water Resources. Lakes and Ponds Program.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Have You Seen This Reed? Common Reed (Phagmites australis) (PDF | 225KB)
State of New Hampshire. Manchester Urban Ponds Restoration Program.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Impacts; Habitat; Controls

Common Reed Grass - Invasive Plants of Ohio
Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Natural Areas and Preserves.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Common Reed Fact Sheet (PDF | 101 KB)
Vermont Agency of Natural Resources. Environmental Conservation.Identification/Description; Illustrations; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

Common Reed - Invasive Alien Plant Species of Virginia (PDF | 26 KB)
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. Natural Heritage Program; Virginia Native Plant Society.
Identification/Description; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Class B Noxious Weed: Common Reed
Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls; Legal Aspects

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University/Academic

Phragmites australis (Common reed) - Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE)
University of Connecticut. Ecology and Evolutionary Biology.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Common Reed - Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States
University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Distribution

Phragmites australis
Purdue University. Center for New Crops and Plant Products.
Identification/Description; Habitat; Distribution; Special Note: References

Common Reed - Maine Invasive Plants Bulletin no. 2532
University of Maine. Cooperative Extension.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Phragmites - Aquatic Invasive Species in the Chesapeake Bay (PDF | 115 KB)
Maryland Sea Grant.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls; Special Note: References

Common Reed - Introduced Species Summary Project
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Controls

Phragmites: Common Reed
Cornell University. Natural Resources. Ecology and Management of Invasive Plants Program.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls; Special Note: Phragmites Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnership (STSP)

Common Reed - Ohio Perennial & Biennial Weed Guide
Ohio State University. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Special Note: Facts and folklore

Common Reed (PDF | 132 KB)
University of Pennsylvania. Morris Arboretum.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Common Reed - Aquaplant
Texas A&M University. Texas Cooperative Extension.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Controls

Common Reed - Virginia Tech Weed Identification Guide
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science.
Identification/Description; Photographs

Phragmites australis - Invasive Plants of Wisconsin
University of Wisconsin - Green Bay. Cofrin Center for Biodiversity Herbarium.
Photographs; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

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International

Phragmites australis - Invasive Species Compendium
Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International (CABI).
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Phragmites
New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. Biosecurity New Zealand.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts

Phragmites australis (grass) - ISSG Global Invasive Species Database
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

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Organizations

Phragmites australis
Discover Life.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative
Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Phragmites: Controlling the All-Too-Common Common Reed (Apr 1995; PDF | 161 KB)
Massachusetts Audubon Society.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Habitat; Controls; Special Note: References

Common Reed - BioBullies (PDF | 1 MB) (Western Pennsylvania)
Natural Biodiversity.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Controls

Common Reed
Plant Conservation Alliance. Alien Plant Working Group.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls; Special Note: Distinguishing native and nonnative Phragmites

Citations

Saltonstall, K. 2002. Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99(4):2445-2449.

Tewksbury, L., R. Casagrande, B. Blossey, P. Hafliger, and M. Schwarzlander. 2002. Potential for biological control of Phragmites australis in North America. Biological Control 23(2):191-212.

Tulbure, M.G., C.A. Johnston, and D.L. Auger. 2007. Rapid invasion of a Great Lakes coastal wetland by non-native Phragmites australis and Typha. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33(sp3):269-279.

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Last Modified: Jul 01, 2014
 
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