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You are here: Home / Aquatic Species / Species Profiles / Caulerpa, Mediterranean Clone
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Species Profiles

Caulerpa, Mediterranean Clone

Caulerpa, Mediterranean CloneScientific name: Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agandh

Common names: Caulerpa, Mediterranean clone; Killer algae

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Native To: Caulerpa taxifolia is widespread in tropical habitats; the Mediterranean clone may have originated in Australia (Jousson et al. 1998; Meusnier et al. 2001)

Date of U.S. Introduction: 2000 (Woodfield 2008)

Means of Introduction: Aquarium trade (Woodfield 2008)

Impact: Crowds out native species (Woodfield 2008)

Current U.S. Distribution:

Federally Regulated:

  • Listed as a Federal Noxious Weed under the Plant Protection Act, which makes it illegal in the U.S. to import or transport between States without a permit (USDA, APHIS - Noxious Weeds Program)

Images:

Video:

Selected Internet Resources:

Federal Government

Caulerpa taxifolia
Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Taxonomy

Caulerpa taxifolia Article Citation Search - AGRICOLA Database
USDA. National Agricultural Library.
Research; Special Note: NAL Catalog Search (resources)

PLANTS Database - Killer Alga
USDA. NRCS. National Plant Data Center.
Taxonomy; Legal Aspects

Caulerpa
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution

Caulerpa taxifolia
DOC. NOAA. National Marine Fisheries Service. West Coast Region.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Caulerpa Marine Algae (Caulerpa taxifolia)
EPA. Pacific Northwest Region.
Photographs; Introduction History; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

What is Caulerpa, and what is Caulerpa taxifolia?
DOI. FWS. Stockton Fish and Wildlife Office.
Identification/Description; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution

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State Government

Caulerpa spp.
Florida Department of Environmental Protection.
Identification/Description; Photographs

Priority Species: Caulerpa
Washington Invasive Species Council.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Controls

Killer Algae - Literature Review (PDF | 155 KB)
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

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University/Academic

Killer Algae Found! (May 12, 2002)
California Sea Grant.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion

Killer Alga, Caulerpa taxifolia (Bryosipdales: Caulerpaceae)
University of California - Riverside. Center for Invasive Species Research.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution

Caulerpa taxifolia
University of Florida. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Controls; Legal Aspects

Caulerpa taxifolia - Marine Algae of Hawai'i
University of Hawaii. Botany Department.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Legal Aspects

Aquatic Invaders: Caulerpa Seaweed - Aquatic Invader Toolkit (PDF | 592 KB)
Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant.
Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Killer Algae - Introduced Species Summary Project
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Controls

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International

Eradicating and preventing the spread of the invasive alga Caulerpa taxifolia in New South Wales (Jun 2004)
Australia. Department of the Environment and Heritage.
Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Literature Review of Caulerpa taxifolia
Austria. University of Salzburg.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls; Research; Special Note: References

Caulerpa taxifolia - Invasive Species Compendium
Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International (CABI).
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Caulerpa taxifolia - Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (Nov 2006; PDF | 208 KB)
European Commission. Sixth Framework Programme.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

Caulerpa
New Zealand Biodiversity.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

Caulerpa taxifolia, a growing menace for the temperate marine environment (Jan 2004; PDF | 635 KB)
United Nations Environment Programme.
Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution

Caulerpa taxifolia (alga) - ISSG Global Invasive Species Database
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

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Organizations

Caulerpa taxifolia
Discover Life.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls

The Caulerpa Information Center
Southern California Caulerpa Action Team.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Killer Algae: Caulerpa taxifolia
Narragansett Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. Rhode Island Marine and Estuarine Invasive Species Site.
Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Controls

Caulerpa taxifolia
North American Plant Protection Organization.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Distribution; Dispersion

Deep Sea Invasion, Original PBS Broadcast Date: Apr 1, 2003
PBS. NOVA.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History

Excerpt from book "Killer Algae" by Alexandre Meinesz
Photographs; Introduction History; Special Note: Excerpted from pages xi-xiv, 95-96 of KILLER ALGAE by Alexandre Meinesz, University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Citations

Jousson, O., J. Pawlowski, L. Zaninetti, A. Meinesz, and C.F. Boudouresque. 1998. Molecular evidence for the aquarium origin of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia introduced to the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 172:275-280.

Meusnier, I., J.L. Olsen, W.T. Stam, C. Destombe, M. Valero. 2001. Phylogenetic analyses of Caulerpa taxifolia (Chlorophyta) and of its associated bacterial microflora provide clues to the origin of the Mediterranean introduction. Molecular Ecology 10(4):931-946.

Woodfield, R. 2008. Noxious seaweed found in southern California coastal waters (PDF | 103 KB) NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service Southwest Regional Office.

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Last Modified: Jul 01, 2014
 
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