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Species Profiles

Species not Established in the U.S.

The following species of concern represent examples of why we must increase our efforts in early detection and rapid response and to prevention of new introductions. See Manager's Tool Kit - Early Detection and Rapid Response: Species not Established in the U.S. for general resources and other species information.

This information is provided as an educational tool and is not inclusive of all invasive animal species not yet established in the U.S.

Asian gypsy moth - Invasive.org

Scientific name: Lymantria dispar dispar (Linnaeus)

Common name: Asian gypsy moth

Native To: Russia (Lee and Pemberton 2010)

Date of U.S. Introduction: North Carolina and Washington in 1997; Oregon in 2000 (APHIS 2003)

Means of Introduction: From infested cargo in European ships (APHIS 2003)

Impact: Eradicated in North Carolina and Washington. It is a voracious pest of trees that poses a major threat to forest habitats in North America. (APHIS 2003)


Photo comparison of Adult female Asian gypsy moth and Adult female European gypsy moth

Asian Gypsy Moth (Apr 2003; PDF | 49 KB)
USDA. APHIS. Plant Protection and Quarantine.

Forest Disturbance Processes - Asian Gypsy Moth
USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.

Asian Gypsy Moth Pest Alert (PDF | 337 KB)
New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets. Division of Plant Industry.

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Brown fir long-horned beetle - Indiana CAPS Program

Scientific name: Callidiellum villosulum (Fairmaire)

Common name: Brown fir long-horned beetle

Native To: China (Zhu Chang-qing 1999)

Date of U.S. Introduction: n/a

Means of Introduction: Intercepted in several states in the Midwestern U.S. on artificial Christmas tree imported from China containing centerposts or bases made from Chinese fir (Ciesla 1999)

Impact: Attacks many species of native conifers. APHIS officials consider this beetle a significant quarantine pest of concern because it does not exist in the U.S. it attacks live trees, and although its economic impact is unknown, damage could be significant. According to inspectors, the beetle hitchhiked in the trunks of the trees, which are made of unprocessed wood. (Ciesla 1999)


Exotic Forest Pest Information System (ExFor) - Callidiellum villosulum
North American Forest Commission. Insect and Disease Study Group.

Brown Fir Longhorned Beetle
Purdue University. Indiana Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey Program.

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Nun moth - Invasive.org

Scientific name: Lymantria monacha (Linnaeus) (CABI)

Common name: Nun moth

Native To: Eurasia (FAO 2009)

Date of U.S. Introduction: n/a

Means of Introduction: Could invade U.S. through shipping containers (Keena et al. 1995)

Impact: Feeds on conifers. Its establishment in this country would be disastrous because it feeds on a variety of vegetation and can migrate and colonize a variety of sites. (Griffin 2010)


Pest Alert: Nun Moth: Potential New Pest
USDA. FS. Northeastern Area.

Forest Disturbance Processes - Nun Moth
USDA. FS. Northern Research Station.

Nun moth - The Atlas of Forest Insect Pests (1996)
Produced by: The Polish Forest Research Institute.

Invasive Species Compendium - Lymantria monacha
CAB International.

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Screwworm larva - USDA, ARS

Scientific name: Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (ITIS; name is valid but unverified)

Common name: Screwworm

Native To: South America and the Caribbean (CFSPH 2007)

Date of U.S. Introduction: Eradicated in the U.S. in 1960 (APHIS 2007)

Means of Introduction: Could be reintroduced in the U.S.. from an infested animal (CFSPH 2006)

Impact: Parasite that kills livestock and wildlife, particularly cattle (CFSPH 2006)


International Screwworm Program
USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Screwworm Eradication Program Records
USDA. National Agricultural Library.

Screwworm - Fast Facts (PDF | 95 KB)
Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.

Invasive Species Compendium - Cochliomyia hominivorax
CAB International.

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Siberian moth - Invasive.org

Scientific name: Dendrolimus superans Butler

Common name: Siberian moth

Native To: Russia (McBride 2002)

Date of U.S. Introduction: n/a

Means of Introduction: Could be imported on infected plants (EPPO 20005)

Impact: Could damage conifer forests. Its potential for defoliation has to be considered at least comparable to that of the gypsy moth in deciduous forests, but its environmental impact would likely be much more severe. The biology of the Siberian moth is unusual and complex, and it has been difficult to control in its native habitat. There are no known introductions of the Siberian moth to North America. (McBride 2002)


Fending Off Siberian Moths
USDA. Agricultural Research Service.

Siberian Moth: Potential New Pest (PDF | 322 KB)
USDA. FS. Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.

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Tropical bont tick - FAO

Scientific name: Amblyomma variegatum    

Common name: Tropical bont tick

Native To: Sub-Saharan Africa (CFSPH 2009)

Date of U.S. Introduction: n/a

Means of Introduction: Introduced to the Caribbean in 1800s from infected cattle from Africa. Could be introduced to Florida from the Caribbean by migratory birds. (Barré et al. 1995)

Impact: Spreads fatal livestock and wildlife diseases. It infests cattle, sheep and goats, reducing meat and milk production on the islands. (CFSPH 2009)


Tropical Bont Tick Fact Sheet (PDF | 65 KB)
Iowa State University. Center for Food Security and Public Health.


APHIS. 2003. Asian Gypsy Moth (PDF | 49 KB). USDA. APHIS Factsheet. Plant Protection and Quarantine.

APHIS. 2007. International Screwworm Program. USDA. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.

Barré N.,G. Garris and E, Camus. Propagation of the tick Amblyomma variegatum in the Caribbean. Review of Science and Technology. 1995 September; Vol. 14, No. 3 pp. 841-55.

CABI. Invasive Species Compendium. Lymantria monacha. CAB International. [Accessed Mar 5, 2015].

Center for Food Security and Public Health. 2006. FastFacts: Screwworm (PDF | 95 KB). Iowa State University. SCRW_F0106.

Center for Food Security and Public Health. 2007. Screwworm Myiasis (PDF | 97 KB). Iowa State University. SCRW_A1007.

Center for Food Security and Public Health. 2009. Amblyomma variegatum: Tropical Bont Tick, Tropical African Bont Tick (PDF | 138 KB). Iowa State University. AMBV_A2009.

Ciesla, W.M. 1999. Callidiellum villosulum. North American Forest Commission. Insect and Disease Study Group. Exotic Forest Pest Information System.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. 2005. Data sheets on quarantine pests - Dendrolimus sibiricus and Dendrolimus superans (PDF | 450 KB). Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 35, pp. 390–395.

Food and Agriculture Organization. 2009. Lymantria monacha (PDF | 417KB). In: Global review of forest pests and diseases. United Nations. FAO Forestry Paper 156.

Griffin, E. 2010. Nun moth (Lymantria monacha). BugwoodWiki. University of Georgia. Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Cochliomyia hominivorax. [Accessed Mar 5, 2015].

Keena M. K. Shields and M. Torsello. 1995. Nun Moth: Potential New Pest. USDA. Forest Service. Pest Alert NA-PR-95-98.

Lee, J.H. and R.W. Pemberton. 2010. Parasitoid complex of the Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in Primorye Territory, Russian Far East. Biocontrol science and technology. Vol. 20, No. 1-2, p. 197-211.

McBride, J. 2002. Fending Off Siberian Moths. USDA. ARS. News & Events.

Zhu Chang-qing (editor). 1999. Insect fauna of Henan. Henan Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

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Last Modified: Mar 05, 2015
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