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You are here: Home / Animals / Species Profiles / European Starling
Species Profiles

European Starling

European StarlingScientific name: Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 (ITIS)

Common name: European starling, common starling, English starling

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Selected Resources

Native To: Eurasia (Fofonoff et al. 2003)

Date of U.S. Introduction: 1890 (Fofonoff et al. 2003)

Means of Introduction: Introduced as part of a plan to introduce to the U.S. all birds mentioned in the works of Shakespeare (Fofonoff et al. 2003)

Impact: Competes with native species; destroys crops (Fofonoff et al. 2003)

Current U.S. Distribution:

  • Entire U.S.


Selected Resources:

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European Starlings and Their Control
Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management.

Texas Invasives Database - Sturnus vulgaris

Invasive Species Compendium - Sturnus vulgaris
CAB International.

Common starling
PestSmart Connect (Australia).

Global Invasive Species Database - Sturnus vulgaris (bird)
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.


National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System (NEMESIS): Chesapeake Bay Introduced Species Database - Sturnus vulgaris
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Marine Invasions Research Lab.

Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory - Sturnus vulgaris
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce.

European Starling - Forest Health Care (PDF | 67 KB)
Toronto Parks and Recreation (Canada). Urban Forestry Services.


European Starling
Missouri Department of Conservation.

European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.

Tennessee's Birds: European Starling
Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency.

Living with Wildlife: Starlings (2004; PDF | 588 KB)
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.


Florida's Introduced Birds: European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

Animal Diversity Web - Sturnus vulgaris
University of Michigan. Museum of Zoology.

Starling Management in Agriculture (Aug 1998; PDF | 692 KB)
University of Nebraska - Lincoln. Cooperative Extension.
Note: Economics of Damage and Control

Introduced Species Summary Project - European Starling
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.

European Starling
Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. All About Birds.
Note: Nesting Behavior

European Starling - Texas Breeding Bird Atlas
Texas A&M University. AgriLife Extension Service.



Fofonoff, P.W., G.M. Ruiz, B. Steves, A.H. Hines, and J.T. Carlton. 2003. Sturnus vulargis. National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System: Chesapeake Bay Introduced Species Database. [Accessed Sep 16, 2014].

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Sturnus vulgaris. [Accessed Sep 10, 2014].

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Last Modified: Nov 18, 2015
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