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You are here: Home / Animals / Species Profiles / European Starling
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Species Profiles

European Starling

European StarlingScientific name: Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus

Common names: European starling, common starling, English starling

Click image to enlarge

Native To: Eurasia (Fofonoff et al. 2003)

Date of U.S. Introduction: 1890 (Fofonoff et al. 2003)

Images: Invasive.org and Google

Means of Introduction: Introduced as part of a plan to introduce to the U.S. all birds mentioned in the works of Shakespeare (Fofonoff et al. 2003)

Impact: Competes with native species; destroys crops (Fofonoff et al. 2003)

Current U.S. Distribution: Entire U.S.

Management Plans: Animals

Selected Internet Resources:

Federal Government

Sturnus vulgaris
Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Taxonomy

Sturnus vulgaris Article Citation Search - AGRICOLA Database
USDA. National Agricultural Library.
Research; Special Note: NAL Catalog Search (resources)

European Starling - AgNIC Wildlife Damage Management
USDA. APHIS. Wildlife Services. National Wildlife Research Center and Colorado State Universities Libraries.
Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Controls

European Starling - Forest and Rangeland Birds of the United States
DOI. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center.
Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion

European Starling
DOI. Patuxent Wildlife Research Center.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Life Cycle; Distribution; Dispersion; Special Note: Song/Call of the European Starling

Sturnus vulgaris - National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System, Chesapeake Bay Introduced Species Database
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion

Sturnus vulgaris - Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory
Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution

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State Government

European Starling - California Wildlife Habitat Relationships System (select European Starling under Birds list)
California Department of Fish and Game. California Interagency Wildlife Task Group.
Taxonomy; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution

European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.
Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Habitat; Dispersion; Legal Aspects

Tennessee's Birds: European Starling
Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution

Living with Wildlife: Starlings (2004; PDF | 588 KB)
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Introduction History; Life Cycle; Habitat; Controls

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University/Academic

Florida's Introduced Birds: European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)
University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution

Sturnus vulgaris
University of Michigan. Museum of Zoology. Animal Diversity Web.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photograph; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Legal Aspects

Starling Management in Agriculture (PDF | 692 KB)
University of Nebraska - Lincoln. Cooperative Extension.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Life Cycle; Impacts; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Controls; Legal Aspects; Special Note: Economics of Damage and Control

European Starling - Introduced Species Summary Project
Columbia University. Center for Environmental Research and Conservation.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Controls

European Starling
Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. All About Birds.
Identification/Description; Photograph; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Dispersion; Legal Aspects; Special Note: Nesting Behavior

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International

Sturnus vulgaris - Invasive Species Compendium
Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International (CABI).
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

Common starling (Sturnus vulgaris)
Feral.org.au.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution; Controls

European Starling - Forest Health Care (PDF | 81 KB)
Toronto Parks and Recreation (Canada). Urban Forestry Services.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Impacts; Controls

Sturnus vulgaris (bird) - ISSG Global Invasive Species Database
World Conservation Union. Invasive Species Specialist Group.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls

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Organizations

Sturnus vulgaris
Discover Life.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution

European Starling Sturnus vulgaris
eNature.com.
Identification/Description; Photographs; Habitat; Distribution

European Starlings and Their Control
Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management.
Identification/Description; Illustrations; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls; Legal Aspects

European Starling
Ohio History Central.
Identification/Description; Photograph; Introduction History; Impacts; Distribution

Sturnus vulgaris
TexasInvasives.org.
Taxonomy; Identification/Description; Photographs; Introduction History; Impacts; Life Cycle; Habitat; Distribution; Controls; Legal Aspects

Citations

Fofonoff, P.W., G.M. Ruiz, B. Steves, A.H. Hines, and J.T. Carlton. 2003. Sturnus vulargis. In: National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System: Chesapeake Bay Introduced Species Database

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Last Modified: Nov 26, 2013
 
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